# Working with Scale

Author:

Nicolas R. Malloy

>

In this chapter, you learned that **map scale** describes the relationship between distance on the ground and the way that distance is represented on a map. In this course, the ratio of map distance over ground distance defines **scale**.

There are three common ways to express scale:

- Representative fraction
- Verbal scale
- Scale bar

In this activity, you will learn how to determine scale and distance using the Arcata South USGS Topographic Quadrangle.

## Learning Outcomes

Students who complete this tutorial should be able to:

- Demonstrate competence in calculating and converting scale
- Explain the relationship between distance, elevation, and slope
- Measure distances using a graphic scale
- Determine distance using a representative fraction
- Determine an unknown scale using a reference map
- Formulate a word statement to communicate scale