# Working with Spatial Reference Systems

Author:

Nicolas R. Malloy

In this chapter, you learned that a spatial reference system defines a geographic location. Some spatial references use coordinates, and others do not. In this activity, you will learn how to identify a position on a map using the correct notation for several spatial reference systems, including the following:

- S. public land survey system (PLSS)
- Geographic Coordinate Systems (GCS)
- Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system
- State Plane Coordinate (SPC) system

**Learning Outcomes**

Students who complete this tutorial should be able to:

- Use the correct notation for spatial reference systems
- Determine distances on a spherical Earth using a GCS
- Define a position using a GCS
- Define a position using PLSS
- Define a position using SPC
- Define a position using UTM